UCLA Life Stress Interview References

The references below are selected empirical studies of chronic and episodic stress that illustrate uses of the interview.

Patient Samples of Adults (Unipolar Depressed and Bipolar)

Hammen, C., Gordon, D., Burge, D., Adrian, C., Jaenicke, C., & Hiroto, D. (1987). Maternal affective disorders, illness, and stress: Risk for children's psychopathology. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 736 741.

Hammen, C., Ellicott, A., Gitlin, M., & Jamison, K. (l989). Sociotropy/Autonomy and vulnerability to specific life events in patients with unipolar depression and bipolar disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 98, 154 160.

Hammen, C. (1991). The generation of stress in the course of unipolar depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 555 561.

Hammen, C., Davila, J., Brown, G., Ellicott, A., & Gitlin, M. (1992). Psychiatric history and stress: Predictors of severity of unipolar depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 101, 45 52.

Patient Samples of Children or Adolescents

Hammen, C., Rudolph, K., Weisz, J., Rao, U., & Burge, D. (1999). The context of depression in clinic-referred youth: Neglected areas in treatment. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 64-71.

Rudolph, K., & Hammen, C. (1999). Age and gender as determinants of stress exposure, generation, and reactivity in youngsters: A transactional perspective. Child Development, 70, 660-677.

High Risk and Community Samples of Adolescents

Adrian, C. & Hammen, C. (1993). Stress exposure and stress generation in children of depressed mothers. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61, 354 359.

Herzberg, D., Hammen, C., Burge, D., Daley, S., Davila, J., & Lindberg, N. (1998). Social competence as a predictor of chronic interpersonal stress. Personal Relationships, 5, 207-218.

Hammen, C., & Brennan, P. (2001). Depressed adolescents of depressed and nondepressed mothers: Tests of an interpersonal impairment hypothesis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69, 284-294.

Hammen, C., Shih, J., Altman, T., & Brennan, P. (2003). Interpersonal impairment and the prediction of depressive symptoms in children of depressed and nondepressed mothers. Journal of the Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 42, 571-577.

Shih, J.H., Eberhart, N., Hammen, C., & Brennan, P. A. (2006). Differential exposure and reactivity to interpersonal stress predict sex differences in adolescent depression. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 35, 103-115. [pdf]